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Five Stages of Training Evaluation

This five stage model sets the framework for developing training evaluation instruments.

Our Training Evaluation Model sets the framework for developing instruments. It accommodates individual training programs based on the type of training, the appropriate evaluation method, and the best way to implement the evaluation.

Work notes spread out on a tableThis model has five stages and is illustrated in the Training Evaluation Model diagram. Each stage corresponds to specific data categories:

  1. Describe the outputs. Outputs are descriptive data about the training programs and participants, including demographic data.
  2. Pre-training assessment. This step uncovers the participants’ past experience as well as current competencies, learning needs, and expected application of learning.
  3. Post-assessment (reactions). This addresses participants’ reactions to the training experience— for example, their learning environment, format and instructor methods, general satisfaction.
  4. Post-assessment (learning). This piece is a self-assessment of knowledge or skills gained and the participants’ expected application of learning.
  5. Follow-up. This process may include several methods to assess the outcomes and effect of training programs over time.

Our model draws from principles in Donald Kirkpatrick’s four-level model, in which evaluation questions fall into the following categories:

Reaction: How was the training overall? What did participants like and dislike?

Learning: What knowledge and abilities did participants learn at the training?

Behavior: How have participants applied the skills they learned?

Results: What was the effect on the agency or organization?